During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, China, the virus was initially named Wuhan coronavirus(sometimes called "Wuhan pneumonia"). The virus is thought to be natural and of animal origin. There are many pieces of research conducted to find out where the first case emerged. We call the first case zero. As far as we know it spreads through bats with an intermediate transmitter
The first affected person was from Wuhan/China. It was first recognized on 2019 December 9th and Human-to-human transmission was confirmed by 20 January 2020 by Chinese authorities and WHO. According to research, it was spread in the Hunan seafood market which even sold live animals. By the start of 2020, the spread of infection was an entirely human-to-human transmission. After knowing that company Vision Medicals were facing some unknown reason, Wuhan Central Hospital also sent a sample of BAL on December 24th. Vision Medical confirmed a new virus named coronavirus On 27 and 28 December after informing Wuhan Central Hospital about the results of the test. For some unknown reason, a pneumonia cluster was forming in the lungs.
Coronavirus occurs when the virus-infected person emits respiratory droplets or aerosols while exhalation and they get into the other person's mouth, nose or eyes. The virus travels through the respiratory tract after an infected person coughs, sneezes, sings, talks, or breathes. This happens when people are usually very close to each other. The closer people are to each other and the longer they are together, the more likely they are to transmit COVID-19. Larger droplets that fall on the ground and aerosols both might be the reason to spread the virus if people are close to each other, whereas longer distances only involve aerosols. We do not know how dangerous the aerosols are but we know for sure that the virus cannot travel over long distances. Restaurants, choirs, gyms, nightclubs, offices, religious venues, and other indoor spaces where there is a lot of crowds are where the chances are more for the virus to spread. Less ventilation is also a factor where the chances for the virus to spread are high. There are chances that you get infected by COVID in the hospitals themselves. While the tests are being performed, the aerosols might get in the air. So you need to be careful if you are going for a test.
COVID-19 can be diagnosed by the symptoms one shows and can be confirmed using reverse transcription test or nucleic acid testing of infected secretions. Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in patients with a high clinical suspicion of infection along with laboratory testing. Some of the common types of testing are:-
Viral testing: - These are nucleic acid tests that detect viral RNA fragments.
Imaging: - As the virus will affect the person’s chest by forming a cluster, Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19. Individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection are not recommended for routine screening.
Staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping a distance from others, and ventilating indoor spaces are some precautions that you can follow to avoid getting affected. Washing your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds will disinfect your hand and kills almost all the viruses. Practice respiratory hygiene.
There are two vaccines currently manufactured in India. One is Covaxin which has been developed by Bharat Biotech International Ltd located in Hyderabad in association with ICMR and the National Institute of Virology.
The second one is Covishield which has been developed by the Oxford AstraZeneca and is currently being manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (SII). This vaccine contains inactivated viruses, which cannot infect a person but still can teach the immune system to prepare a defense mechanism against the active virus. Both the vaccines have shown excellent results which are far more than expected since the doses have been given to the people. The effectiveness of the Covaxin vaccine is as high as 81% and that of Covishield is even more than 90%. Apart from vaccination, you can follow some safety standards to stay away from the virus they include Social distancing, Self-isolation, facial masks, and respiratory hygiene, ventilation and air filtration, healthy diet and lifestyle, hand washing, surface cleaning, and maintaining hygiene.
Several measures are commonly used to quantify mortality. Various factors are affecting the number of deaths displayed like the volume of testing, healthcare system quality, treatment options, and time since the initial outbreak, and also population characteristics such as age, sex, and overall health. The data has been changed a lot over time after the beginning of the pandemic. However, one surprising thing that was identified was the fact that there were fewer deaths in females when compared to males. This was true especially at the beginning of the pandemic. One of the reasons might be because women generally are within the house and there are fewer chances for the virus to spread within the women. This was only a guess and not the real reason, but the latest information says that both men and women are equally affected by the virus. For better clarity and understanding, let’s see the effect of the coronavirus in a graphical structure.